Despite the problems caused by the Corona-virus our Webshop and the contact forms on our website are fully available. You may also address your inquiries to customer-relations universaledition. Thank you for your understanding if our answer takes longer as usual because of the current restrictions. Your Universal Edition Team. The present "48 Exercises for oboe", opus 31, represent Ferling's most important studies.
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The etude's rounded binary form structure is generously supplied with both florid and stenographic ornamentation, the latter having been realized in modern notational values. Although the eighth note is prominent, Ferling taking every chance he can to subdivide it into duplets, triplets, quadruplets, and octuplets trills , the actual tactus is the quarter note.
In addition, the range is very wide, reaching from B to F3. The passage involving the high F, E, and D must have been quite a challenge on the early mechanized German oboes of the day. In fact, this same spot still makes for considerable angst among players utilizing fully mechanized modern instruments. Certainly a word is in order concerning the wide intervals liberally utilized by Ferling: at the outset, the dominant 7th on G is spelled out in the tritone descent from F2 to B1, perhaps as a portend of what is to follow.
The perfect 4th in measure 3 reappears in the rounding of the binary form, followed by florid ornamentation. But, needless to say, the minor 6th up to the high F3 causes the most anxiety, preceded as it is by the trill A2-G2 which is difficult to execute until the muscles of the third finger have been strengthened.
This is not an etude for the faint-hearted! The composer writes out all ornamental figuration appoggiaturas and, utilizing the eighth note as the tactus, has but two manners of subdivision: duplets and quadruplets.
It is the latter subdivision, expressed as dotted sixteenth followed by a thirty-second, that occupies a substantial part of the study. In addition, Ferling tests the student's knowledge of arpeggios and the chromatic scale. Ferling seems obsessed with the low B in this etude, but it must be remembered that this aspect of mechanization was quite special to the 19th-century oboe whether it be German or French. In order lengthen this miniature movement, the present editor has repeated both sections of its binary form.
Like the first study, this one maintains an interesting tessitura from B to F3. The wide intervals and many trills are quite a challenge for novice and professional alike. Ferling has carefully notated this study with outstanding choices insofar as dynamics and articulation are concerned. The Romantic third relationship from A minor to F major at the start of the B section is remarkable as is the disguised rounding of the binary form section at measure In addition, a plethora of staccato and accents keep the oboist quite busy.
As in previous studies, the present editor has added repeats to both sections of this miniature binary structure. Contrary to usual practice, Ferling rarely includes repeats of the A and B sections of the binary form studies in his Op. Ferling has supplied its ternary structure with a short tonicizing coda. A number of trills and wide intervals, not to mention the extensive tessitura from B to E3, make for hard work on the part of the oboist.
As usual, the repeats are those of the present editor. Perhaps the composer wanted to warn the player not to rush the slurred passages to the detriment of the scales in 'flying' staccato. The breath accents in measures and make for some unexpected work on the part of the oboist, in what is, otherwise, an etude which lies quite well under the fingers.
The editor has reinforced these same accents with hemiola in the piano accompaniment. It appears to be just the recapitulation, with its coda, of a binary or ternary form from the slow movement of a sonata. The coda is comprised of three closing themes, the first of which makes unbelievable demands on the embouchure and wind control because of its extraordinarily large intervals and wide-ranging tessitura. The 'fragment' is really very well written; it is too bad that Ferling did not present the first two parts.
The closing theme in the relative major at the end of the B section, signaling a change of modality, is typical of this genre. In the last three measures, the outline of the tonic chord rests over a pedal point on the dominant, a device usually found in a pastorale. So it would seem that this study is concerned primarily with meter. More pressing to the oboist, though, are the wide intervals which derive from the style of Paganini, and the ornamentation stemming from Rossini.
The binary structure does not lend itself to repetitions of either section; the last, in particular, would be impossible with its two very final closing themes. The da capo is written out, albeit in truncated fashion. The repeat of the short theme of the trio is beautifully varied upon its repetition. To be sure, it is important to observe just how the composer lays out his themes in order that their flavor might be appreciated and projected.
But because of it difficulty, this is one of those studies in which most of the student's time will be spent in just getting the notes and rhythmic subdivision. Measure 14, with its complex subdivisions, is not musically convincing; but it is pedagogically sound.
The editor has reinforced the two hemiola measures at 15 and Bach before he wrote this study. It does contain many of the earmarks of a keyboard approach: broken chords, chromatic scales, and 16th note movement. The tessitura is wide, including a number of C 1's and F3's. The structure, itself, features a truncated rounding of the binary form and a short coda in the relative major.
Players should be careful not to overdo it, since the recapitulation is presented with full florid ornamentation. To be sure, the movement is laid out in the style of rounded binary form associated with a 19th-century scherzo in duple meter, but it lacks the usual trio. The use of cross-string pyrotechnics in measure 30 is notable. The rounding of the binary form is set an octave lower, taking advantage of the early mechanized low B and the sonority of the low register.
Ornamentation is sparse in this study as befits the genre, but could be easily added by the industrious student. It's rounded binary form is set out AA' BA" , and the editor, as on many other occasions, has opted to repeat each of the two main sections.
Ferling even includes a cadenza in the engaging rounded binary form movement. The tactus is placed solidly on the eighth note. And this one does move swiftly: to counter balance the pace, slow harmonic rhythm is applied. Hemiola can be observed in measures 5, 22, 23, and 28; one wishes there were more. Still, there is more than enough, technically speaking, to keep the oboist busy. As usual, it is laid out in rounded binary form with repeats added by the present editor.
This is, to be sure, a stylized version of a genre of Hungarian folk music. The trill from A2 to G2, which is found throughout this etude, requires careful attention or its sonority will be adversely affected.
A vigorous initial theme in A major is followed by a trio in binary form. This same trio is placed in the tonic, rather than the usual subdominant. It is here that Ferling concentrates upon teaching the student to differentiate between triple and quadruple subdivision.
Finally, an abbreviated form of the first theme brings the movement to a close. Included are two closing themes which are necessary for nailing town the tonic because of the shortened return of A. In addition, the oboist has several measures of pyrotechnics to confront: these can be found in measures 9 through The closing theme explores the lower reaches of the oboe's tessitura to good advantage.
Hemiola and arpeggiation set it off from the former composition. Although Ferling does not always indicate staccato for non-slurred 16ths and 8ths, this style is implicit in the rubric Scherzando, and should be applied. The binary structure features the addition of a new theme, actually a trio in the relative minor, and a da capo.
The latter is a very revised rendition of the second half of the original binary form, and includes a surprise rounding of that form. The wide leaps correspond to the rapid crossing of strings on the violin. Set in a slow 'tearful' three, its subdivisions make for sudden explosions of ornamentation: the roulade at measure 7 is perhaps the most difficult to bring off.
Considering the fact that Ferling worked so near the heartland of the German Romantic Movement Leipzig, Berlin, and Dresden , one wonders why the composer took so much time with Italian and French Romantic opera in the studies before us.
Perhaps he was an arch conservative, or it might be that Braunschweig was quite catholic in its taste. In any case, Ferling knew Italian operatic style well: the ornamentation applied to the repeat of the A section beginning at measure 9 is masterful. Although its range is wide, there are no Paganini-like pyrotechnics. Ferling does not round the binary form as would be expected after the internal fermata.
In actual performance within an opera, such a strophe this one in ternary form is repeated several times, each repetition being supplied with a new text. It would appear that Ferling has presented us with the final time around, since his ornamentation is so complete.
Therefore, a performance of, say, three strophes would entail stripping away some of the ornamentation for the first two stanzas. The movement is reminiscent of the slow movement of a sonata or concerto. Ferling conceals the start of the second part of the ternary form by beginning it with the same thematic material as the first, and in the same key.
The ternary structure is capped by an extensive closing theme. The editor has chosen to repeat both the initial A section and the BA closing theme section in order to give more length to this outstanding movement. To add interest, a short trio is added to the basic A B binary form; the da capo recapitulates only the A section.
Because of this, several Dbs will, by necessity, have to played with the trill fingering, i. Ferling's structure appears to be ternary form, but there are strong binary form overtones within his concept. The basic movement here is in three, but the eighth-note pulse is strong.
Successive repetitions of the romance should be supplied with additional ornamentation. This one is filled with intriguing harmonies, brought about by moving chords over pedal point and by the utilization of many diminished chords. The present editor's accompaniment has been rendered primarily as dry staccato. Overall, the study is composed of a binary form followed by a short trio and modified da capo. The structure is similar to the previous military etude, except that the trio is a complete binary form in the subdominant.
Interest is added through the use of hemiola in measures and The rounded binary structure resembles the style of a French Romance, in which case it should be repeated several times with varied ornamentation. The B section of the rounded binary form begins with a Neapolitan relationship to the subdominant. This section eventually ends on the subdominant before the recapitulation of A.
The overall form is then capped by an extensive coda of four repeated closing themes, in which each successive theme is shorter than its predecessor. The fourth of these is set in hemiola.
Franz Wilhelm Ferling: 48 Studies
The etude's rounded binary form structure is generously supplied with both florid and stenographic ornamentation, the latter having been realized in modern notational values. Although the eighth note is prominent, Ferling taking every chance he can to subdivide it into duplets, triplets, quadruplets, and octuplets trills , the actual tactus is the quarter note. In addition, the range is very wide, reaching from B to F3. The passage involving the high F, E, and D must have been quite a challenge on the early mechanized German oboes of the day. In fact, this same spot still makes for considerable angst among players utilizing fully mechanized modern instruments. Certainly a word is in order concerning the wide intervals liberally utilized by Ferling: at the outset, the dominant 7th on G is spelled out in the tritone descent from F2 to B1, perhaps as a portend of what is to follow.
48 Études for Saxophone
Franz Wilhelm Ferling spent a good part of his life as an oboist at the Court of Braunschweig [Brunswick]. This was a time of great upheaval in German-speaking lands, when people living in dozens of little principalities and duchies like Braunschweig were trying to come to a consensus as to whether they would prefer to join together as a sovereign country, or be absorbed by Austria-Hungary or Prussia. While the principalities waited to see what would happen, they and their people continued about their daily lives as they had for centuries. Clearly, the Art of Music was practiced on a very high level in that duchy. For Church there are 2 Offertories; both have surely been transposed into difficult keys to suit pedagogical purposes. The influence of Paganini seems to be the root of the 4 Toccatas, and perhaps the 3 Slow Movements of Sonatas or Concertos.
48 Studies for the Oboe, Op. 31
Franz Wilhelm Ferling
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