This site works best in Chrome, Edge, Firefox or Safari web browsers. Not all functionalities will work in Internet Explorer. This information is essential for informed policy decisions, planning, monitoring, and evaluation of programs on health in general and reproductive health in particular at both the national and regional levels. A long-term objective of the survey is to strengthen the technical capacity of the Central Statistical Agency to plan, conduct, process, and analyse data from complex national population and health surveys. Moreover, the Ethiopia DHS provides national and regional estimates on population and health that are comparable to data collected in similar surveys in other developing countries.
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Demographic and Health Survey Ethiopia , Central. Identification Survey ID Number. Study type. Series Information. The Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey is the second survey of this type conducted in Ethiopia. This information is essential for informed policy decisions, planning, monitoring, and evaluation of programs on health in general and reproductive health in particular at both the national and regional levels.
A long-term objective of the survey is to strengthen the technical capacity of the Central Statistical Agency to plan, conduct, process, and analyse data from complex national population and health surveys. Moreover, the Ethiopia DHS provides national and regional estimates on population and health that are comparable to data collected in similar surveys in other developing countries.
Data from the Ethiopia DHS survey, the second such survey, add to the vast and growing international database on demographic and health variables. Husbands of currently married women were also covered in this survey. Kind of Data. Unit of Analysis.
Scope Notes. Coverage Geographic Coverage. Producers and sponsors Primary investigators. Sampling Sampling Procedure. In general, a DHS sample is stratified, clustered and selected in two stages. In the EDHS a representative sample of approximately 14, households from clusters was selected.
The sample was selected in two stages. In the first stage, clusters urban and rural were selected from the list of enumeration areas EA from the Population and Housing Census sample frame. In the census frame, each of the 11 administrative areas is subdivided into zones and each zone into weredas.
In addition to these administrative units, each wereda was subdivided into convenient areas called census EAs. Each EA was either totally urban or rural and the EAs were grouped by administrative wereda. Demarcated cartographic maps as well as census household and population data were also available for each census EA. In the Affar Region the incomplete frame used in was improved adding a list of villages not previously included, to improve the region's representativeness in the survey.
However, despite efforts to cover the settled population, there may be some bias in the representativeness of the regional estimates for both the Somali and Affar regions, primarily because the census frame excluded some areas in these regions that had a predominantly nomadic population. Thus, the sample for the EDHS must be weighted to produce national estimates. As part of the second stage, a complete household listing was carried out in each selected cluster.
The listing operation lasted for three months from November to January Between 24 and 32 households from each cluster were then systematically selected for participation in the survey. Because of the way the sample was designed, the number of cases in some regions appear small since they are weighted to make the regional distribution nationally representative.
Throughout this report, numbers in the tables reflect weighted numbers. To ensure statistical reliability, percentages based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases are shown in parentheses and percentages based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases are suppressed. Response Rate. A total of 14, households were selected, of which 13, were occupied.
The total number of households interviewed was 13,, yielding a household response rate of 99 percent. A total of 14, eligible women were identified in these households and interviews were completed for 14, women, yielding a response rate of 96 percent. One in two households were selected for the male survey and 6, eligible men were identified in this subsample of households, of whom 6, were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 89 percent.
The response rates are higher in rural areas than urban areas for both males and females. Note: See summarized response rates by place of residence in Table 1. Data Collection Dates of Data Collection. Start End Data Collection Mode. Data Collection Notes. LISTING After the selection of the clusters throughout the 11 administrative areas, a listing operation in the selected clusters starting from the month of October was conducted.
For this purpose, training was conducted for 46 listers who had been recruited from all the regions to do the listing of households and delineation of EAs. A manual that described the listing procedure was prepared as a guideline and the training was conducted using classroom demonstrations and field practices. The listing was performed by organizing the listers into teams, with two listers per team. Seven field coordinators were also assigned from the head office to perform quality checks and handle all the administrative and financial issues of the listing staff.
Supervision was carried out by the cartographic division of PHCCO to assess the quality of the field operation and the level of the accuracy of the GPS readings. Though the listing operation was aimed to be completed in three months, it was extended up to five months in some parts of the country, primarily because of a shortage of vehicles.
PRETEST Prior to the start of the fieldwork, the questionnaires were pretested in all the three local languages, to make sure that the questions were clear and could be understood by the respondents. In order to conduct the pilot survey, 12 interviewers were recruited from the Amhara, Oromiya and Tigray regions. In addition to the new recruits, 14 senior staff members of PHCCO were trained for a period of three weeks to conduct the pilot fieldwork and serve as trainers for the main fieldwork.
The pilot training which was conducted from January 24 to February 11, , included training in blood sample collection for the anaemia and HIV testing. The pilot survey was conducted from February in four selected sites. The areas selected for the pretest were urban Addis Ababa and both urban and rural parts of Mekele, Ambo and Debre Birhan areas. Accommodation was arranged for the trainees as well as the trainers at a training site in Addis Ababa.
The training of interviewers, editors and supervisors was conducted from March 14 to April 20, The Amharic questionnaires were used during the training, while the Tigrigna and Oromiffa versions were simultaneously checked against the Amharic questionnaires to ensure accurate translation. In addition to classroom training, trainees did several days of field practice to gain more experience on interviewing in the three local languages and fieldwork logistics.
A total of trainees were trained in five classrooms. On the basis of the scores on the exam and overall performances in the classroom, trainees were selected to participate in the main fieldwork. From the group 30 of the best male trainees were selected as supervisors and 30 of the best female interviewers were identified as field editors.
The remaining trainees were selected to be interviewers. The trainees not selected to participate in the fieldwork were kept as reserve. Thirty male interviewers and 30 female interviewers were selected to attend the biomarker training.
In addition, the 30 field editors also attended the training, as a backup to the biomarker interviewers. Thirteen regional laboratory technicians who were recruited from Private Laboratory Consortium Unit PLCU to serve as regional coordinators for the HIV testing were also trained, of whom 11 were eventually selected to supervise the blood collection. During the one-week biomarker training, six experienced experts from ORC Macro and EHNRI provided theoretical training followed by practical classroom demonstrations of the techniques for testing of haemoglobin and collection of dried blood spots from a finger prick for HIV testing.
In addition to the classroom training, trainees did several days of field practice to gain more experience on blood collection. A total of 30 data collection teams, each composed of four female interviewers, two male interviewers, one female editor, and a male team supervisor, were organized for the main fiedwork. Furthermore, the 30 field teams were organized into 11 regional groups, each headed by an experienced senior staff of PHCCO and accompanied by a regional coordinator from PLCU.
The survey was fielded from April 27 to August 30, Data quality was also monitored through field check tables generated from completed clusters simultaneously data entered and produced during the fieldwork. Five senior experts from PHCCO were permanently assigned to monitor the fieldwork throughout the survey period by moving from one region to another. Continuous communication was maintained between the field staff and the headquarters through cell phones.
Fieldwork was successfully completed in of the clusters, with the 5 clusters not covered primarily due to reasons of inaccessibility.
In one cluster in the Gambela Region, households refused to be finger-pricked for cultural and traditional reasons. Questionnaires Questionnaires. In order to adapt the standard DHS core questionnaires to the specific socio-cultural settings and needs in Ethiopia, its contents were revised through a technical committee composed of senior and experienced demographers of PHCCO. A one-day workshop was organized on November 22, at the Ghion Hotel in Addis Ababa to discuss the contents of the questionnaire.
Over 50 participants attended the national workshop and their comments and suggestions collected. Based on these comments, further revisions were made on the contents of the questionnaires.
The questionnaires were finalized in English and translated into the three main local languages: Amharic, Oromiffa and Tigrigna. The Household Questionnaire was used to list all the usual members and visitors in the selected households. Some basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of the household.
The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women and men who were eligible for the individual interview. Data Processing Data Editing. The processing of the EDHS results began soon after the start of fieldwork. Completed questionnaires were returned periodically from the field to the data processing department at the PHCCO headquarters. After the actual entry of the data began, additional data entry operators were recruited and entry was performed in two shifts.
A total of 22 data entry operators and 4 office editors carried out data entry and primary office editing activities. Each of the questionnaires was keyed twice by two separate entry clerks.
Consistency checks were made and entry errors were manually checked by going back to the questionnaires. A secondary editing program was then run on the data to indicate questions that showed inconsistency and these were also corrected by secondary editors. The data entry for the clusters that started on 9 May was completed on 24 September Data Appraisal Estimates of Sampling Error.
The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: 1 nonsampling errors, and 2 sampling errors.
Comparison of under-five mortality for 2000, 2005 and 2011 surveys in Ethiopia
Objective: To identify factors associated with anaemia in lactating mothers in Ethiopia. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to determine the factors associated with anaemia. Results: The overall prevalence of anaemia among lactating mothers was The highest prevalence was The multivariate statistical model showed that having a husband who had attended primary education adjusted OR AOR 0. Conclusions: Anaemia is highly prevalent among lactating mothers, particularly in the pastoralist communities of Somali and Afar. Promoting partner education, improving maternal nutritional status, and creating behavioural change to use family planning and ANC services at health facilities are recommended interventions to reduce the prevalence of anaemia among lactating mothers in Ethiopia.
Demographic and Health Survey 2005
The key findings of the survey were released in a preliminary report in November This final report details the findings of the survey. The primary objective of the EDHS was to provide up-to-date information for policy makers, planners, researchers and programme managers, which would allow guidance in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of population and health programmes in the country. This survey is a nationally representative survey of 14, women age and 6, men age In one of two households selected for the survey, women age and children age months were tested for anaemia, and women age and men age were tested for HIV. Key indicators relating to each of the above topics are provided for the nine regional states and two city administrations.