Please help improve this article if you can. The offices of the President and the Prime Minister were retained for the executive branch of government from the French model. The Islamic Republic is not a Communist state as the Islamic scholars fiercely oppose this. Article In order to ensure Islamic equity and cooperation in chalking out the programmes and to bring about the harmonious progress of all units of production, both industrial and agricultural, councils consisting of the representatives of the workers, peasants, other employees, and managers, will be formed in educational and administrative units, units of service industries, and other units of a like nature, similar councils will be formed, composed of representatives of the members of those units. Mazurisar Nearly seventy three members of Majlis ghwnoon been selected for evaluating the constitution who were from different minorities of religions, scientists, Athletes, and religious figures. The constitution in now legal order.
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While articles One and Two vest sovereignty in God, article six "mandates popular elections for the presidency and the Majlis, or parliament.
It is said that the thought of writing constitutional law in Iran has existed since when Ruhollah Khomeini was driven away to Paris before the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty in the Iranian Revolution. In other words, the thought of the Iranian constitution had existed in the second half of and its early draft had been written in Paris. Its draft also has been produced there and after that has been considered in Iran many times.
This task was transferred to the provisional government by Mehdi Bazargan. The draft constitution published by the provisional government of Mehdi Bazargan in June was modeled on the constitution of the French Fifth Republic. Then, during a joint summit between the members of provisional government and superieur council of revolution with presence of Khomeini in Qom , it is ordained that there is no need to establish of assembly establishers and they rejected it.
Also after that, it is ordaind that Assembly of Experts has to be established. The offices of the President and the Prime Minister were retained for the executive branch of government from the French model. The congress has been come to exist by solar. Nearly seventy three members of Majlis has been selected for evaluating the constitution who were from different minorities of religions, scientists, Athletes, and religious figures.
The Majlis of finally evaluating of constitution begun his career during sixty seven sessions and in four rounds. The first round considered with preliminary evaluating of principles. The second round considered with providing principles in groups. The third round dealt with approbation of principles and the fourth round with investigation of all collection of principles. According to legal bill of council of revolution that constitution has placed to vote through referendum of yes or no and finally has been voted by positive votes of Iranian people.
It has been said that the republic is a kind of regime in which the chief of country and generally all responsible has to be selected whether directly or indirectly by people. In fact, republic system is a contrary to aristocracy in which the right of governing is hierarchical and at disposal of a definitive and minor groups.
It made several changes in the constitution, in Articles 5, , , , eliminating the need for the Leader to be a marja or to be chosen by popular acclaim. The amendments were thought to be established because no marja had given strong support for Khomeini's policies -  The amendments were approved by the voting public on 28 July in same election as Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was elected to the first of two terms as President of Iran.
The constitution begins by stating that the "anti-despotic movement for constitutional government , and anti-colonialist movement for the nationalization of petroleum" in s failed because of lack of religious coloring thereunder. Moreover, the "central axis" of the theocracy shall be Quran and hadith.
The preamble further states: "The Assembly of Experts for Constitution Article 1 states that the form of Government in Iran is that of an Islamic Republic. Article 2 defines an Islamic Republic as a system based on belief in: . Article 3 states the objective of the Islamic Republic is to direct all of its resources to a number of goals.
These goals cover general topics in governance. For example:. These goals were designed to emphasize positive liberty. The principles of faith and piety are necessary conditions of creating a good society. Therefore, that is needed some initiative actions such as cleaning the environment.
That action is to policies like codification of rules of social justice and removing any type of social gap; creating the administrative system; reformation of judicial system according to Islamic regulations.
Reducing the phenomena of being illiterate; rejecting the tyranny and being participated of all people in all affairs and refinement of souls.
Article 4 is immutable and the Council of Guardians ensures that all articles of the Constitution as well other laws are based on Islamic criteria.
This article explains the leaders of Ummah must choose a leader in accordance with Article for this office. This is stated to be related to the disappearance of the Twelfth Imam whom it asks God to return. Article 15 states that the "Official language and writing script of Iran Article 24 "Publications and the press are free to discuss issues unless such is deemed harmful to the principles of Islam or the rights of the public.
The law shall determine the details of this exception. Article 27 provides for freedom of assembly, "provided arms are not carried" and the assemblies "are not detrimental to the fundamental principles of Islam". Article 37 provides for the presumption of innocence, stating: "Innocence is to be presumed, and no one is to be held guilty of a charge unless his or her guilt has been established by a competent court. Article 29 [Welfare benefits] is a universal right of all to enjoy social insurance or other forms of security for retirement, unemployment, old-age disability, lack of guardianship, being a wayfarer, accident and the need for health and treatment services and medical care.
The government, in accordance with the laws and by drawing on national revenues, is required to provide such insurance and economic protection to each and every citizen of the country. Article The Islamic Republic is not a Communist state as the Islamic scholars fiercely oppose this. Notwithstanding this, pursuant to Article 44, "all large-scale and mother industries, foreign trade, major minerals, banking, insurance, power generation, dams, and large-scale irrigation networks, radio and television, post, telegraph and telephone services, aviation, shipping, roads, railroads and the like" are entirely owned by the government.
According to the Article 44 of the Iranian Constitution, the economy of Iran is to consist of three sectors: state, cooperative, and private; and is to be based on systematic and sound planning. This article has been amended in to allow for the Privatization of the Iranian economy. Article The government has the responsibility of confiscating all wealth accumulated through usury , usurpation, bribery, embezzlement, theft, gambling, misuse of endowments, misuse of government contracts and transactions, the sale of uncultivated lands and other resources subject to public ownership, the operation of centers of corruption, and other illicit means and sources, and restoring it to its legitimate owner; and if no such owner can be identified, it must be entrusted to the public treasury.
This rule must be executed by the government with due care, after investigation and furnishing necessary evidence in accordance with the law of Islam. Article This article links current and future generations to the environment and makes it a public duty to protect the environment. This article explicitly forbids economic activity that degrades or causes irreversible harm to the environment. Pursuant to Article 60, the president fulfills "executive" functions "except in the matters that are directly placed under the jurisdiction of the [Leader]" as enumerated in Article Article 68 allows suspension of elections during wartime.
Article 57 states the Separation of Powers. This article forbids multinational corporation from taking over certain businesses in Iran saying, "concessions to foreigners or the formation of companies" in Iran is forbidden. Article In order to expedite social, economic, development, public health, cultural, and educational programmes and facilitate other affairs relating to public welfare with the cooperation of the people according to local needs, the administration of each village, division, city, municipality, and province will be supervised by a council to be named the Village, Division, City, Municipality, or Provincial Council.
Members of each of these councils will be elected by the people of the locality in question. Qualifications for the eligibility of electors and candidates for these councils, as well as their functions and powers, the mode of election, the jurisdiction of these councils, the hierarchy of their authority, will be determined by law, in such a way as to preserve national unity, territorial integrity, the system of the Islamic Republic, and the sovereignty of the central government.
Article In order to prevent discrimination in the preparation of programmes for the development and welfare of the provinces, to secure the cooperation of the people, and to arrange for the supervision of coordinated implementation of such programmes, a Supreme Council of, the Provinces will be formed, composed of representatives of the Provincial Councils.
Law will specify the manner in which this council is to be formed and the functions that it is to fulfil. Article The Supreme Council of the Provinces has the right within its jurisdiction, to draft bills and to submit them to the Islamic Consultative Assembly, either directly or through the government. These bills must be examined by the Assembly. Article Provincial governors, city governors, divisional governors, and other officials appointed by the government must abide by all decisions taken by the councils within their jurisdiction.
Article In order to ensure Islamic equity and cooperation in chalking out the programmes and to bring about the harmonious progress of all units of production, both industrial and agricultural, councils consisting of the representatives of the workers, peasants, other employees, and managers, will be formed in educational and administrative units, units of service industries, and other units of a like nature, similar councils will be formed, composed of representatives of the members of those units.
The mode of the formation of these councils and the scope of their 'functions and powers' are to be specified by law. Article Decisions taken by the councils must not be contrary to the criteria of Islam and the laws of the country. Article The councils may not be dissolved unless they deviate from their legal duties.
The body responsible for determining such deviation, as well as the manner for dissolving the councils and re-forming them, will be specified by law. Should a council have any objection to its dissolution, it has the right to appeal to a competent court, and the court is duty-bound to examine its complaint outside the docket sequence.
The constitution accords many powers to the Supreme Leader. Some say that the Supreme Leader's powers extend beyond those enumerated in the Constitution because he can use "Islamic issues for justification.
Article If a proposed bill of Majles is "against the principles of Shariah or the Constitution," then the Guardian Council should meet with the Expediency Council to resolve the legislative deadlock.
Article The foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran is based upon the rejection of all forms of domination, both the exertion of it and submission to it, the preservation of the independence of the country in all respects and its territorial integrity, the defence of the rights of all Muslims, non-alignment with respect to the hegemonic superpowers, and the maintenance of mutually peaceful relations with all non-belligerent States.
Article Any form of agreement resulting in foreign control over the natural resources, economy, army, or culture of the country, as well as other aspects of the national life, is forbidden. Article The Islamic Republic of Iran has as its ideal human felicity throughout human society, and considers the attainment of independence, freedom, and rule of justice and truth to be the right of all people of the world.
Accordingly, while scrupulously refraining from all forms of interference in the internal affairs of other nations, it supports the just struggles of the Mustad'afun oppressed against the Mustakbirun oppressors in every corner of the globe.
Article The government of the Islamic Republic of Iran may grant political asylum to those who seek it unless they are regarded as traitors and saboteurs according to the laws of Iran. Article [Rule of Law for Judiciary] stipulates that judges must make use of "Islamic sources and This article guarantees the freedom of expression and dissemination of thoughts in the "Radio and Television of the Islamic Republic of Iran" when keeping with the Islamic criteria and best interests of the country.
It gives the Leader the power to appoint and dismiss the head of the "Radio and Television of the Islamic Republic of Iran" and establishes a council with two representatives six in total from each branch of the government to supervise this organization.
Chapter 8, which has only one article, establishes Iran's National Security Council. This article regulates the process for revising the Constitution and puts a moratorium on revisions to particular aspects of the Constitution. Absent its own repeal, Article requires an edict by the Leader to initiate the process of making future revisions to the Constitution.
The final amendments are put to referendum in a process initiated by the executive  unlike Article 59 referendum which must be approved by a supermajority of the Islamic Consultative Assembly. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. National constitutional law. This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Looks like it was machine translated, English is not idiomatic and in some places unintelligible.
Please help improve this article if you can. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. For the previous constitution, see Persian Constitution of Main article: Assembly of Experts for Constitution. See also: Iranian Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran.
Supreme Councils. Local governments. Municipality City Council. Election Office Guardian Council. Presidential :
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran
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