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The membership focuses on Specialist Concrete Frame Contractors, supported by other associated market leaders especially in the formwork, reinforcement and concrete industries. The aims and objectives of CONSTRUCT are to: promote excellence in the design and construction of reinforced concrete frames and structures identify and address issues which impede best practice and buildability actively work with clients, designers and others in the project team to maximise benefits in speed and economy during the design and construction of in-situ concrete frames and structures promote innovation in the use of concrete in reinforced concrete frames and structures co-ordinate the views of CONSTRUCT members and to act in their interest promote and encourage training and education initiatives.
The research study of the construction of the seven-storey in situ European Concrete Building Project has informed this Guide. Building clients, developers, permanent works and temporary works design engineers, frame constructors technical and supervisory staff, planning supervisors, proprietary equipment suppliers and main contractors involved in building. Unrestricted Best practice guidance Committee guided Clients, developers, engineers and building constructors.
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Enquiries should be addressed to The Concrete Society. Although The Concrete Society limited by guarantee does its best to ensure that any advice, recommendations or information it may give either in this publication or elsewhere is accurate,. Summary Formwork and falsework play a significant part in the overall benefits achievable in the construction of in situ concrete buildings.
Process control and an improved understanding of temporary works by designers, constructors and suppliers have been identified from research as crucial to successful design, leading to safe completion of flat slab concrete buildings.
Many of the principles apply to other forms of construction. Detailed information and guidance for all members of the construction team is given in this Guide to enable improved designs and construction techniques to be adopted, thus promoting more efficient and economic construction of commercial concrete buildings.
The Guide has been structured to aid readability, and follows the stages of construction. New principles for the early striking of flat slabs in buildings are introduced, together with recommended methods of assessing concrete strength. The relative arrangement of falsework and backpropping has a significant effect on the force transmitted through the supporting slab into the backpropping.
Four methods of assessing backpropping loads are presented in order to help designers and constructors to plan efficient construction schemes. Theoretically, construction loads can exceed the design service load on newly cast slabs, and the Guide makes proposals so that permanent works designers can investigate and take appropriate action.
This Guide should lead to the quicker, safer construction of buildings and provide longer term economic benefits to the industry, to constructors and ultimately to clients. It should be of interest to all those in the construction team. Foreword This Guide is a consensus view developed during the construction of the seven-storey in situ concrete building for the European Concrete Building Project by the multi-disciplinary team of consultants, contractors, researchers and specialist suppliers involved with the project.
Construction took place between January and May inside Hangar No. Any views expressed are not necessarily those of the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry. Pallett Chairman. Professor A. Beeby P. Campbell Professor L. Clark C. Cleverly Secretary J.
Franklin C. Goodchild C. Heathcote Rev. James S. Lillie J. Maw Dr R. Moss Eur. Pope D. Smith D. Thomas T. Viney R. Corresponding Members: J. Clarke V. Dunham S. Ferguson D. Lazarus Professor A. Long Eur. Price Dr M. Soutsos C. Wilshere OBE. Pre-contract stage. General - building design considerations Loading considerations - permanent structure Slab thickness Column and wall kickers Staircases Trimming of holes Effect of concrete type on temporary works Temporary works concept selection Types of temporary works for in situ flat slab construction 3.
Preconstruction planning stage. Management of the temporary works The temporary works design brief 4. Background to striking and backpropping. General Philosophy for loading and striking flat slabs Deflection of slabs struck at early age Assessment of concrete strength at early age Backpropping 6. General Material handling Loading-out platforms Temporary works to columns Temporary works to walls and lift shafts Temporary works to slabs Temporary works to precast slabs Cranage Implications of changes.
General Method to establish required concrete strength No backpropping required One level of backpropping Two levels of backpropping Sequence of striking soffit formwork Sequence of installing and removal of backpropping Accidental overloading of slabs. Annex D Worked example of striking and backpropping to second floor.
General Loadings To establish the criteria for striking Further considerations - strength assessment. Second floor - Backpropping considerations for falsework erection Second floor - Backpropping considerations for casting the third floor Method One - Backprop loads by use of percentages of load Method Three - Backprops loads by use of further simplified formulae Method Four - Backprop loads from spreadsheet Discussion Second floor - Pre-load of backprops and allowance for cracking Second floor - Discussion on loading to above the service load Second floor - Backpropping considerations for accidental overloading Fourth floor - Distributed load from falsework.
Annex E Theory of loading a slab to above the design service load. El E2 E3. Introduction Theory: base criteria Loads E3. Annex F Backpropping spreadsheet. Spreadsheet liability Introduction Operation of the Excel spreadsheet Worked examples. The distribution coefficient Ratio of curvature Effective deflection factor FJ. Floor four of the ECBP under construction. O to satisfy Equation Summary of concrete strength assessment methods for early striking.
Sd eqUathl Note: Page numbers refer to the first page on which an equation appears. Some equations are repeated at appropriate points in the text. Act Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations National Structural Concrete Specification for Building Structures Partners in Technology Scheme of the DETR, now DTi permanent works designer serviceability limit state temperature-matched curing temporary works temporary works co-ordinator temporary works designer ultimate limit state.
Definitions Backpropping: Propping installed at levels below the slab that supports the falsework in order to distribute the load on the uppermost slab to suitable supports, such as lower slabs or to the foundations. Backprops can be required at more than one level. In some parts of the world, backpropping is called re-shoring.
Constructor: Any organisation carrying out construction operations on a site. Falsework: Any temporary structure used to support the permanent structure until it can support itself. Flat slab: A floor slab with or without drops and supported, generally without beams, by columns preferably without column heads. It may be solid or may have recesses formed on the sofit so that the soffit comprises a series of ribs in one or two directions i. Formwork: A structure, usually temporary, for containing poured concrete, moulding it to the required dimensions and supporting it until it is able to support itself.
It consists primarily of face contact material and the bearers directly supporting the face contact material. Post-propping: Temporary propping installed after placing permanent formwork prior to steel fixing and concreting, where the permanent formwork will carry its own weight and the construction loads, but the load from the in situ concrete is carried by the post-propping.
Repropping: The system used during construction in which the supports to a recently cast slab are removed and replaced in a planned sequence. Supporting slab: The suspended floor slab immediately below the floor slab under construction. The sofit formwork and falsework for the next slab above will be erected on this slab. Temporary works: A structure used in the construction of the permanent structure.
It is usually removed on completion. Temporary works co-ordinator: The person appointed to have overall responsibility for the technical and procedural aspects of the design, procurement, erection and use of the formwork, falsework and scaffolding. This Guide covers the procedural and technical aspects of the formwork, falsework and striking operations involved in flat slab in situ concrete construction in the UK.
Flat slabs are considered as slabs with a flush soffit that may incorporate beam strips within their depth and are one- or two-way spanning.
Guide to Flat Slab Formwork and Falsework
Latest version of document. Explains the procedural and technical aspects of the formwork, falsework and striking operations for constructing fiat slab in situ concrete buildings. New principles for early striking of flat slabs are introduced, together with recommended methods of assessing concrete strength. Four methods of assessing backpropping loads are presented to help designers and constructors to plan efficient construction schemes.
PUB CS140 Guide to flat slab formwork and falsework
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Flat Slab Formwork & Falsework