The caliphate of Hasan ibn Ali is sometimes also considered to be Rashidun as well but since it was merely a six month period it is not mentioned categorically. The Rashidun were either elected by a council see the election of Uthman and Islamic democracy or chosen based on the wishes of their predecessor. He prevented the recently converted Muslims from dispersing, kept the community united, and consolidated Islamic grip on the region by containing the Ridda , while extending the Dar Al Islam all the way to the Red Sea. Dhu al-Hijjah 26, 23 Hijri  was a leading companion and adviser to Muhammad. His daughter Hafsa bint Umar was married to Muhammad; thus he became Muhammad's father-in-law. He became the second Muslim caliph after Muhammad's death and ruled for 10 years.
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Jump to. Sections of this page. Accessibility Help. Join or Log Into Facebook. Email or Phone. Forgot account? Sign Up. The title 'Khalifatu Rasulil-lah'. In practice, submission to Allah means to obey His injunctions as given in the Holy Qur'an and as exemplified by Sunnah the practice of the Prophet sallallaho alehe wassallum.
As successor to the Prophet sallallaho alehe wassallum, the Caliph was the head of the Muslim community and his primary responsibility was to continue in the path of the Prophet sallallaho alehe wassallum.
Since religion was perfected and the door of Divine revelation was closed at the death of the Prophet sallallaho alehe wassallum, the Caliph was to make all laws in accordance with the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
He was a ruler over Muslims but not their sovereign since sovereignty belongs to Allah alone. He was to be obeyed as long as he obeyed Allah. He was responsible for creating and maintaining conditions under which it would be easy for Muslims to live according to Islamic principles, and to see that justice was done to all.
Hazrat Abu Bakr r. Obey me as long as I obey Allah and His Messenger sallallaho alehe wassallum. When I disobey Him and His Prophet sallallaho alehe wassallum, then obey me not. Many Caliphs came later in the Muslim world after the Khulfa -ur Rashideen rizvanullah alehim ajmaeen took their veils to the another world but the Caliphs who came after them in the Muslim world could not ever match the first four Khualfa - ur Rashideen rizvanullah alehim ajmaeen and the last very good and very successful Caliph to come in the Muslim world will be Hazrat Imam Al-Mahdi.
In shaa Allah. They lived simple and righteous lives and strove hard for the religion of Allah. Their justice was impartial, their treatment of others was kind and merciful, and they were one with the people - the first among equals. After these four, the later Caliphs assumed the manners of kings and emperors and the true spirit of equality of ruler and ruled diminished to a considerable extent in the political life of Muslims.
It should be clearly understood that the mission of Prophet Muhammad may Peace Be Upon Him , and hence that of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, was not political, social or economic reform, although such reforms were a logical consequence of the success of this mission, nor the unity of a nation and the establishment of an empire, although the nation did unite and vast areas came under one administration, nor the spread of a civilization or culture, although many civilizations and cultures developed, but only to deliver the message of Allah to all the peoples of the world and to invite them to submit to Him, while being the foremost among those who submitted.
The primary responsibility of an Islamic government is still the same as it was in the days of the early Caliphs: to make all laws in accordance with the Qur'an and the Sunnah, to make positive efforts to create and maintain conditions under which it will be possible and easy for Muslims to live an Islamic life, to secure impartial and speedy justice for all, and to strive hard in the path of God.
Any government which is committed to such a policy is truly following the message delivered by the Prophet may Peace Be Upon Him. With the martyrdom of Hazrat Ali karamullah wajho, the first and most notable phase in the history of Muslim peoples came to an end.
All through this period it had been the Book of Allah and the practices of His Messenger - that is, thc Qur'an and the Sunnah - which had guided the leaders and the led, set the standards of their moral conduct and inspired their actions.
It was the time when the ruler and the ruled, the rich and the poor, the powerful and the weak, were uniformly subject to the Divine Law. It was an epoch of freedom and equality, of God-consciousness and humility, of social justice which recognized no privileges, and of an impartial law which accepted no pressure groups or vested interests. Hazrat Ameer Muawiya r.
List of Rulers of the Islamic World
The institution of Khilafat is that blessed heavenly system of guidance, granted by Allah the Exalted, to a community of believers for their spiritual progress and development. Firmly holding onto it is a verification of their belief as well as a guarantee for their peace, security and spiritual advancement. The blessed subject of Khilafat is indeed like a life line and a source of real inspiration. It brings with it a message of spiritual elevation which takes a believer closer and closer to Allah the Almighty and enables him to achieve the purpose of his creation. Without Khilafat there is no life, no joy and no spirituality.
Expansion of the Muslim dominion during Khilafat-e-Rashida – Part I
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It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs successors of Muhammad after his death in CE AH This term is not widely used in Shia Islam as Shia Muslims do not consider the rule of the first three caliphs as legitimate. The Rashidun Caliphate is characterized by a twenty-five year period of rapid military expansion , followed by a five-year period of internal strife. The Rashidun Army at its peak numbered more than , men. By the s, the caliphate in addition to the Arabian Peninsula had subjugated the Levant , to the Transcaucasus in the north; North Africa from Egypt to present-day Tunisia in the west; and the Iranian plateau to parts of Central Asia and South Asia in the east. The caliphate arose out of the death of Muhammad in CE and the subsequent debate over the succession to his leadership. Abu Bakr , a close companion of Muhammad from the Banu Taym clan, was elected the first Rashidun leader and began the conquest of the Arabian Peninsula.
Early Islamic World
The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah is of paramount importance in the history of Islam. It set the stage for the expansion of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula and set the precedence for the expanding boundaries of the Muslim dominion in North Africa and Asia Minor during the time of Khilafat-e-Rashida. Although many Muslims initially viewed it with bitterness, the result was a great triumph. The treaty allowed some of the greatest Arab warriors and enemies of Islam to witness its peaceful nature and embrace it. As a result of the treaty, the Meccan leadership, which had banned Muslims from entering the city, welcomed Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa sa as their head in less than two years. Shortly after the victory of Mecca, the Holy Prophet sa passed away.